Apart from the CBD, two other "Rio Conventions" are most important which have their implications on the Biodiversity Convention and biodiversity development in the world.
These are the Climate Change Convention (United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change/UNFCCC) and the Desertification Convention (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification/UNCCD). Furthermore the RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands is closely related to these international environmental conventions
An important aspect between the CBD and the UNCCD is the progress that has been made on the synergy between the two conventions through the Joint Work programme. More information on the progress of the JWP can be found on the Tematea website of UNEP and IUCN.
Good overviews of other biodiversity-related conventions with links to their web sites are given on
Relevant international conventions and regulations
The Netherlands ratified the following international conventions relevant to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use:
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a supplementary agreement to the Convention known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on 29 January 2000. The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an advanced informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory.
International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Objective of the FAO-PGR Undertaking is to ensure the conservation and sustainable utilization of genetic resources for food and agriculture, as well as the fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from their use, for present and future generations. The Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) aims to reach international consensus on areas of global interest, through negotiations.
Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention)
The Convention on Wetlands, to which The Netherlands is also a party, provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
CITES (from 1973) aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or the Bonn Convention) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. It is one of a small number of intergovernmental treaties concerned with the conservation of wildlife and wildlife habitats on a global scale. Since the Convention's entry into force on 1 November 1983, its membership has grown steadily to include 74 (as of 1 June 2001) Parties from Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania.
An important agreement under the Bonn convention, to which the Netherlands is also a party, is the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement. The agreement covers 172 species of birds ecologically dependent on wetlands for at least part of their annual cycle, including many species of pelicans, storks, flamingos, swans, geese, ducks, waders, gulls and terns.
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention)
The Netherlands also ratified the Bern Convention. The Convention aims at ensuring conservation of wild flora and fauna species and their habitats. Special attention is given to endangered and vulnerable species, including endangered and vulnerable migratory species specified in appendices.
The Parties undertake to take all appropriate measures to ensure the conservation of the habitats of the wild flora and fauna species. Such measures should be included in the Parties planning and development policies and pollution control, with particular attention to the conservation of wild flora and fauna. The Parties undertake to promote education and disseminate general information concerning the need to conserve species of wild flora and fauna and their habitats.
World Heritage Convention
The Netherlands ratified the fm World Heritage Convention in August 1992. The mission of UNESCO's World Heritage Convention is to:
- encourage countries to sign the Convention and ensure the protection of their own natural and cultural heritage;
- encourage States Parties to the Convention to nominate sites within their national territory for inclusion on the World Heritage List.
As a member of the European Community, the Netherlands has to comply with the regulations given in the following EC Directives:
Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC)
More information on Council Directive 92/43/EEC (1) of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora can be found on the relevant EC web page.
Birds Directive (79/409/EEC)
More information on Council Ditective 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds can be found on the relevant EC web page.
One of the older conventions is the one on Whaling (International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling) from 1946 and another from 1980 on the protection of Antarctica (the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources/ CCAMLR).